The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.

We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock – reality, If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The relation of an action to reality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the most complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak about three moods in Russian. (Изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное). The number of moods in MoE is greater. The best classification of moods was introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional) moods.

The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.

In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня было время, я бы посетил тебя.) There are many opinions exists concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional and subjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”. (I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is necessary that all the students be present at the classroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is necessary that all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood. The SII and the conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact actions. SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincides with the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used to be “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should or Would”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I should do it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If I had been you I should have done it).

The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past tense form adding the particle “бы”. It possesses the category of gender and number.

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