The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER. Therefore it is characterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The lexical meaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances under which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of an action or of a quality. (He has come late. Он пришел поздно. He is here. Он здесь). These adverbs express some circumstances under which an action takes place. The syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs the syntactical function that of an adverbial modifier. (He is here. Он здесь. – the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in the 2 languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv. Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will come tomorrow. He speaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the adverb to words of other classes, it is characterized by being connected with the verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. – verb; He is very clever. – adj; He acts very cleverly. - adverb). The adverb may be also connected with the noun, but this is not a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in the room opposite. - noun). As to the morphological characteristics a part of adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-the most slowly). All the adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 large groups. They are: Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in their lexical meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs are those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an action takes place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative adverbs do not express any external circumstances. They express the characteristics of an action or a quality. (slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of an adverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantial adverbs perform the function of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there. He will come tomorrow.) The circumstantial adverbs are always connected with the verb, they are unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected with verb, adj, adverb.
Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.
The word-combination both in ER is characterized by the following features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more notional words (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may include two or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one word only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The word-combination has practically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication. If we say “a black table” we are not quite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore the w-c has no predicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense, modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that expresses a predication. The w-c are usually build on the basis of one notional word. This notional word is usually called the pivotal word of the main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordance with their pivotal words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c (a red rose, красная роза); 2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4) adverbial (quite near, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified into: - free syntactical comb-s, phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are such combinations the part of which may be freely replaced (a large table – a large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood as a whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning). A w-c may also classified according to their relations between the words in them. When we may have: attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (to read a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал стоя/сидя). W-c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional words (a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consist usually of more than 2 words (to travel to a big city, a big red rose). W-c may be subordinative (include pivotal words, or the pivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or words of they are equal – ножи и вилка, a boy and a girl).
Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely used in MoR. Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form of the pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories as gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широкая река, широкое озеро – gender; широкий залив – широкого залива – case; широкий залив – широкие заливы – number). In plural no agreement in gender is observed (широкие заливы – no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number (город красив, площадь красива – gender; город красив – города красивы – number). In Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals in case (пяти домов, пятью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).