The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.

The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same. It expresses “thingness”. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of Russian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix “-let” (booklet, leaflet). In both languages we find the grammatical category of number and case. But they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in English we find only 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The common case in English isn’t marked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a table –стол, a window – окно). The formation of the plural number is standard in English and non-standard in Russian. Number and case are sometimes expressed by separate morphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s). The case-morpheme – “’s” may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man I saw yesterday’s son). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is used only with nouns (Peter’s book - книга Пети). The common case in English is very widely used. It may function as any part of the sentence – subject, object, predicative, attributive, and adverbial modifier. Prepositions are of great importance in English. The of-phrase is practically used with all the nouns. The difference between the possessive case and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of gender in the two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in English it is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to express this category morphologically – “-ess”. In both languages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable. Uncountable include singularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always the correlation between the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семья ждет, сани едут). In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is, the family is/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо).

In both languages the functions of different cases are different. In Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an accusative case may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental case is used as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically as an attribute.

The category of state in E&R compare.

In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно. This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammarians this words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicative adverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form an independent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, Хаймович called them add-link, and some others called them the words of the category of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class: 1) words beginning with “a-“ - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words beginning with “a-“ - which is not a prefix (afraid, awake, aloof, etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives or adverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The question is rather complicated because different grammarians refer different words of this class. Жигайло, Иванова, Йофик refer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“. There is an opinion that this class is very rich in words expressing a state. (Лейкина refers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’s up?). Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state form an independent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically, morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said that semantically they denote a state, morphologically they are characterized by the element “a-“, and syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep – comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type “asleep” do not from an independent part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of view was put forward by professor Бархударов. 3) The words of the type “alive” do not form a grammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is because a state may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun (it’s time to have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and 3) by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put forward by professor Вилюман.

 
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