The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.

Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. It expresses the quality or the characteristics of an action. The adj. is characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical functions. They are attribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book is interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-e is more changeable. It’s characterized by such morphological categories as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of comparison. (интересная книга – интересные книги, яркое солнце, интересный собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category – the category of the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best). There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positive degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in English is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый, красивая, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have practically one grammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular number, nominative case, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most qualitative adjectives have short forms, which are usually used as predicative. The combinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. In English we usually speak about lexical and lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russian the grammatical combinability is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол). The English adjective may have its right-hand connection with the prop-word “one” (a good one, a nice one). There are some adj-ves in Russian the syntactical function of which changes the meaning (present, ill, glad; the present situation (not equal) the student is present). Russian adjectives are characterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided into two groups: qualitative, relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in Russian. Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun in the common case (настольная лампа – a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the Russian lan-ge. There is a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов).

Parts of speech in E&R compare.

Both in RE the vocabulary is classified into parts of speech. The words are classified into parts of speech according to three main principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-European family of the languages. They have much in common. There are many words which both in languages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother, mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages. But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the same meaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо; to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not enough to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian language is syntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the morphological principle is a great importance when we classify words into parts of speech. The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical principle and the combinability of words are of great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall). The parts of speech in both languages are divided into: notional words and form-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun, the verb, the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notional parts of speech. But the conjunction, the preposition, the particle, the article are formal parts of speech. So in both languages there are some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech.

 
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